Historia Scientiarum, Vol.23 No.1, July 2013

Article


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(Open Access)
Edmund C.Berkeley as a Popularizer and an Educator of Computers and Symbolic Logic(pp.1-23)
SUGIMOTO, Mai(杉本舞)
Kansai University(関西大学)

Abstract
This paper explores how Edmund C. Berkeley tried to instruct and popularize high-speed computers in the 1940s and 1950s and how Berkeley emphasized the connection between computers and symbolic logic. Berkeley strengthened his conviction in the significance of symbolic logic and Boolean algebra before his graduation from Harvard University and maintained this conviction for more than 30 years. Berkeley published books and articles, including Giant Brains, and sold electrical toy kits by which young boys could learn electrical circuits and their logical implications. The target audience of Berkeley covered wide range of people including those who were not making computers but were interested in using them, that is, amateur adult technology enthusiasts who enjoyed tinkering with technology or reading about science and technology, and young students. In these projects Berkeley used Shannon’s paper of 1938, “A symbolic analysis of relay and switching circuits” as a theoretical basis of his conviction. Design of these kits was fine-tuned by Claude E. Shannon.

Keywords
Edmund C. Berkeley, symbolic logic, computer, Claude E. Shannon, Giant Brains

Note


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(Open Access)
The Evolution of the Gender Question in the Study of Madame Lavoisier(pp.24-37)
KAWASHIMA, Keiko
Nagoya Institute of Technology, Omohi College

Abstract
This paper analyses the changes in the image of Madame Lavoisier from the perspective of gender in two centuries worth of academic literature. From her lifetime to the end of the twentieth century, which marked the 200 years anniversary of Antoine Lavoisier’s death, this woman was mainly praised as the quintessential sensible woman who had been dedicated to her husband, the father of the Chemical Revolution. Whereas this was intended as a praise to Madame Lavoisier, an investigation conducted from this perspective does not mean it depicted her as one of the intellectuals of the eighteenth century. On the other hand, a study that attempted to portray who she really was, due to the gender question, could be accused of bias and manipulating the historical documents; furthermore, if such a study adopted an unsuitable methodology, it would only end up emphasizing her as a “”wicked woman””. From the perspective of second-wave feminism, personified by the slogan ”The personal is political””, this paper shows the importance of the perception of Madame Lavoisier as a person who supported the Chemical Revolution in her own right.
Such a perspective demands an analysis of how Marie-Anne Lavoisier has been described more recently, especially before the emergence of second-wave feminism, as well as how the research on her changed after this shift in feminist thought occurred. Such works can answer the question of when scientists attracted attention in history. In particular, this paper will compare the ways that female and male scientific researchers have attracted attention and shed light on the reasons for the difference between how the two sexes have been treated, to stop adopting the view of the strong and the tendency to group humans according to different conditions and think of them as being the same. This research approach will be a usef11l method for not only gender minority studies in the history of science but also for other minority studies.

Keywords
Korean mathematics, geometrical diagrams, use of colors in diagrams,representation of three-dimensional objects

Contents


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[Pages 57-60]
(Open Access)
CONTENTS OF HISTORIA SCIENTIARUM, Volume 1 – Volume10(pp.59-75)
カテゴリー: Historia Scientiarum, Historia Scientiarum, Vol.23 No.1, Information of Journals of the Society パーマリンク